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LDS laser direct forming solution


 In the past more than 10 years, mobile communications technology has developed rapidly, especially the volume and weight of mobile terminals have been greatly reduced, which has also contributed to the rapid development of mobile terminal antennas. In the face of rapidly decreasing size requirements, the designer focuses on minimizing antenna size while maintaining antenna performance such as gain, coverage, and frequency bands.
In recent years, the antenna industry program has been insufficient to meet the current demand, the main following problems:
The traditional mechanical antenna, large volume and high weight, have been unable to meet the small appearance of communication equipment.
Flexible circuit board manufacturing costs and long cycle, can not meet the rapid development of the market demand;
Low signal reception quality is also a key issue.
In recent years, the market demand has promoted the development of technology, and the laser direct forming technology (LDS) has been carried out. This scheme is the main development direction in the future. It will become the ultimate development direction with the best effect of various indexes. And what hinders it is the high cost.
LDS is laser direct forming (Laser-Direct-structuring)
Principle: the laser sent by the laser enters the focus of the laser through the fiber and adjusts the optical system. It is reflected into the focusing system by scanning system and focuses on the working surface. Through the adjustment of the laser focus optical system, the laser focus can be changed at positions 1, 2 and 3. By adjusting the scanning system, the laser focus can be changed in the X-Y plane. Thus, laser movement in three-dimensional space can be achieved and three-dimensional processing can be realized.
Is an important advantage of material processing by laser scanning, and circuit pattern structure fast without geometry constraints, the delivery time is shorter and more convenient producers. The specific process is as follows:
injection molding
Made from modified thermoplastic material and manufactured by a universal, one component, injection molding process. Compared with two-component injection molding, only one mold is needed, and the injection molding process is faster.
This plastic material can be activated by laser plastic as raw materials, including raw materials need to focus on the performance of electronic components suppliers: processing performance and application of flame retardant level, temperature, mechanical and electrical properties, injection molding, plating performance and cost performance.
Laser activation
LDS technology requires that these thermoplastics be doped with a special additive before they can be activated by laser. After the laser is projected into the plastic workpiece, some physical and chemical reactions are taken place on the surface of the plastic to form an activated metal particle, which acts as a reducing agent in the electroless copper plating to catalyze the deposition of copper metal. In addition to the activation process, the laser molding process also processes the plastic surface to produce micro rough surface to ensure that the metallized copper can be embedded and ensure good coating adhesion.
Metal plating
The purpose of metallization is to deposit metal on the spot where the laser has been irradiated and to form a conductive structure. Electroless copper is deposited by electroless plating using LDS technology. Before plating, it is necessary to clean the workpiece, and then in the electroless copper bath, the line is deposited copper thickness of 5-8um, and finally can be electroless nickel plating and gold-plated. Coatings suitable for special applications may also be coated with coatings such as Sn, Ag, Pd/Au, OSP, etc..
encapsulation
For LDS laser activated plastics, there are high thermal stability materials, such as LCP, PA6/6T or PBT/PET blends, which can be reflow resistant and compatible with standard SMT processes. Because the solder joints may vary in height, solder paste is usually applied to the pads by dispensing. Now, the mount technology for 3D is mature.

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